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Coronavirus (ES)

Serie de vacunas contra el COVID-19 Parte II: ¿Cómo funciona la vacuna y es segura?

¿Cómo funciona la vacuna y es segura?
5 minutos
• 
Published
January 20, 2021
Dr. Jill Lundstrom
Board-Certified Pediatrician
Dr. Jill earned her MD at the University of Massachusetts. She believes that all children deserve access to quality healthcare to learn and thrive.

Ahora que la vacuna COVID-19 está disponible en los EE. UU., Muchas familias pueden tener preguntas sobre la vacuna. Nuestro equipo de atención ha recopilado todas las preguntas que hemos escuchado durante las últimas semanas. Compartiremos actualizaciones semanales e invitaremos a las familias a que traigan sus preguntas a los chats en línea con nuestro equipo de atención.


Esta semana nos enfocaremos en ayudar a las familias a comprender cómo funciona la vacuna COVID-19 y por qué es seguro recibir las inyecciones. Asegúrese de volver a consultar la próxima semana para leer la tercera parte de nuestra serie de vacunas COVID-19: ¿Quién debe recibir una vacuna contra el COVID-19?

1. Pregunta: ¿Es segura la vacuna contra el COVID-19?


Respuesta: Sí. Aunque las vacunas de ARNm son nuevas, se han estudiado durante más de diez años. Se ha probado la seguridad de estas vacunas antes de ser aprobadas para su uso en los Estados Unidos

2. Pregunta: ¿Qué es una vacuna y cómo funciona en el cuerpo?


Respuesta:
La mayoría de las vacunas se fabrican a partir de virus muertos o a partir de una sola proteína, que es solo una parte muy pequeña del virus. La vacuna entrena a nuestro cuerpo para combatir una enfermedad específica al hacer que el sistema inmunológico cree anticuerpos. Los anticuerpos nos protegen de enfermarnos.

3. Pregunta: ¿Qué tiene de especial la vacuna contra el COVID-19?

Respuesta: La vacuna contra el COVID-19 funciona de manera un poco diferente a su vacuna anual contra la influenza. La vacuna contra el COVID-19 utiliza tecnología de ARN mensajero (ARNm). Las vacunas de ARNm no usan el virus vivo y NO hay riesgo de que una persona vacunada contraiga COVID-19 por la inyección.

Actualmente hay dos vacunas de ARNm aprobadas en los Estados Unidos: Pfizer y Moderna.

4. Pregunta: ¿Cómo funciona una vacuna de ARNm?

Respuesta: Las vacunas de ARNm funcionan en cinco pasos.
1. Una persona recibe una vacuna de ARNm.
2. El ARNm le enseña a nuestro cuerpo a producir una proteína inofensiva. La porción de proteína se llama proteína de pico.
3. Nuestro cuerpo destruye el ARNm después de producir la proteína de pico.
4. Nuestro cuerpo responde a la proteína de pico produciendo anticuerpos.
5. Estos anticuerpos nos protegen de enfermarnos si el virus real ingresa a nuestro cuerpo.

5. Pregunta: ¿Puede una vacuna de ARNm cambiar mi ADN?


Respuesta: No.
Cada persona tiene miles de ARNm en su cuerpo que expiran una y otra vez durante todo el día. El cuerpo se descompone y se deshace del ARNm poco después de terminar de seguir las instrucciones. Debido a que los ARNm son solo temporales, nunca interactúan con su ADN.


6. Pregunta: ¿Cuáles son los beneficios de las vacunas de ARNm?

Respuesta: Algunos de los beneficios de las vacunas de ARNm son:

  • No usan el virus en la vacuna
  • Se pueden hacer en un laboratorio
  • No tardan tanto en hacer
  • Pueden apuntar a más de una enfermedad

7. Pregunta: ¿Hay efectos secundarios de la vacuna?

Respuesta: Algunas personas han tenido efectos secundarios menores después de recibir la vacuna contra el COVID-19. Esto puede ser dolor, enrojecimiento o hinchazón en su brazo debido a la inyección.

Las personas también pueden experimentar dolores corporales o musculares, fiebre, escalofríos, fatiga. Parece ser más común después de la segunda dosis de la vacuna. Todos estos síntomas son temporales. Es posible que se sienta incómodo durante un período breve (de unas horas a unos días).


Estos síntomas no significan que tenga COVID-19. Estos son signos de que su cuerpo está respondiendo a la vacuna porque su sistema inmunológico está construyendo sus defensas. No son señales de que esté enfermo.

Recibir la vacuna reduce el riesgo de enfermarse gravemente o morir a causa del COVID-19. La vacuna también puede disminuir la posibilidad de que usted pueda transmitir el virus a otra persona. Al vacunarse, también puede ayudar a proteger a las personas que lo rodean. Si tiene preguntas sobre cómo recibir la vacuna para su familia, consulte a su médico.


Asegúrese de registrarse en nuestra serie de seminarios web Pregunte a un médico para obtener más información sobre la vacuna contra el COVID-19 y lea el siguiente blog de nuestra serie: ¿Quién debe recibir una vacuna contra el COVID-19?


La información de este blog se considera verdadera y correcta a la fecha de publicación. Los cambios en las circunstancias posteriores al momento de la publicación pueden afectar la precisión de la información.


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Parent Story
A father was concerned when his son was showing COVID-19 symptoms. His school uses Hazel, so he was able to contact a Hazel doctor from home.

The Hazel provider recommended he get a COVID-19 test and shared resources to help find a testing center in their area. The father was eager to help his son feel better and appreciated being able to quickly get answers and advice.
Nurse Story
A student came into the nurse's office with a sprained ankle. After icing her foot, she still was in pain, so the nurse called Hazel. Thankfully, her family had provided consent for over-the-counter pain relief because she was able to take some medicine and return to class feeling better.

After the visit, the Hazel provider reached out to the school nurse to check on the student’s injury. The nurse shared that the student’s ankle was improving, and she appreciated the follow-up.
Parent Story
A mother noticed her son was getting low on his asthma medication. She tried to schedule a visit with his doctor to refill his prescription, but no appointments were available. She didn’t want her son to run out of medicine, so she reached out to Hazel.

The provider was able to send the refill to a local pharmacy within one day. The mother was happy that her son would have the medicine he needed. She was also amazed at how easy and fast the entire process was.
Student Story
A student was coughing and sneezing a lot, but her family wasn’t sure if she was sick or had allergies. Thankfully, her school used Hazel, and they could get an answer.

After talking with the school nurse and the Hazel provider about her symptoms and medical history, the student was happy to find out it was likely allergies. She got some medicine and returned to class feeling better.
Student Story
During the pandemic, a high school student was having a hard time coping. She was sad about COVID-19 impacting her senior year, and she was worried about the state of the world. The student was also struggling with some personal conflicts, and she felt she didn't have the right support at home. After discussing her feelings, a Hazel doctor connected her with resources that she described as “life-changing.” She was very grateful and shared that she didn't know where to go for help before Hazel.
Parent Story
Shortly after COVID-19 began, a student began to develop tics. Her parents took her to a neurologist, but they wanted to get her into counseling as well. The student’s mother was having a hard time finding answers to her questions and didn’t know where to start the process, so she turned to Hazel.

The Hazel doctor listened as the mother shared her concerns and frustrations. Hazel reassured her that they would find the right services for her child. After the initial visit, the Hazel doctor partnered with the school counselor and the student’s mother to identify resources and counseling services that are a good fit.
Student Story
A student came into the nurse’s office because his vision went blurry. The Hazel doctor looked at his eyes, but he did not see any injury. As he asked him questions about his symptoms, he started to sense that he was down about something. After a few minutes, the student shared that he was really sad because his mom was recently diagnosed with cancer. He explained that he feels worried, and it’s hard for him to focus.

Hazel called home, and the student’s mother confirmed her diagnosis. They discussed how to help manage the child’s stress, and Hazel offered to connect the child with counseling resources through the school. The mother was very grateful for the guidance and was eager to get her child help during a stressful time.
Counselor Story
Hazel Health has been integral this year in getting our students the mental health services needed to help them live healthy lives.  The staff has been attentive, prompt, and resourceful. There is an evident sense of caring for the work they do and the students they serve. It has been a pleasure partnering with Hazel Health in providing mental wellness for our Garland ISD families.